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Gall, Joseph Grafton
Socio Soci Stranieri
Anno di nomina: 1988
Email: gall [@] carnegiescience.edu
Data di nascita: 14/4/1928
American Cancer Society Professor of Developmental Genetics nella Carnegie Institution for Science, Baltimore, Maryland (U.S.A.).
Joseph Gall received a Ph.D. in Zoology from Yale University in 1952. His first academic position was in the Zoology Department at the University of Minnesota, after which he moved to Yale University as Professor of Biology with a joint appointment in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry. Since 1983 he has been a Staff Member in the Embryology Department of the Carnegie Institution in Baltimore.
His long-term interests are in the structure and function of the cell, particularly the nucleus. His earliest studies involved the giant lampbrush chromosomes and amplified nucleoli found in oocytes of amphibians. In collaboration with his graduate student Mary Lou Pardue, he developed in situ hybridization, one of the most widely used techniques in cell and developmental biology. Studies on the protozoan Tetrahymena with his postdoctoral fellow Elizabeth Blackburn led to the discovery of the repeated GGGGTT sequence that characterizes the telomeres of most eukaryotic chromosomes. He has had a long-standing interest in the structure and function of nuclear bodies, especially the Cajal body and histone locus body. His most recent studies on transcription and splicing are focused again on amphibian oocytes.
He was elected president of the American Society for Cell Biology in 1967 and received its E. B. Wilson award in 1983. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the National Academy of Sciences. In 2006 he received the Albert Lasker Special Achievement Award in Medical Research and in 2007 the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize.